 Vernier Software & Technology

# Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization

## Introduction

When a liquid is placed in a container, and the container is sealed tightly, a portion of the liquid will evaporate. The newly formed gas molecules exert pressure in the container, while some of the gas condenses back into the liquid state. If the temperature inside the container is held constant, then at some point equilibrium will be reached. At equilibrium, the rate of condensation is equal to the rate of evaporation. The pressure at equilibrium is called vapor pressure, and will remain constant as long as the temperature in the container does not change.

In mathematical terms, the relationship between the vapor pressure of a liquid and temperature is described in the Clausius-Clayperon equation, $Cannot create image: \ln P = \frac{{ - \Delta {H_{vap}}}} {R}\left( {\frac{1} {T}} \right) + C$

where ln P is the natural logarithm of the vapor pressure, ΔHvap is the heat of vaporization, R is the universal gas constant (8.31 J/mol•K), T is the absolute, or Kelvin, temperature, and C is a constant not related to heat capacity. Thus, the Clausius-Clayperon equation not only describes how vapor pressure is affected by temperature, but it relates these factors to the heat of vaporization of a liquid. ΔHvap is the amount of energy required to cause the evaporation of one mole of liquid at constant pressure.

## Objectives

In this experiment, you will

• Measure the pressure inside a sealed vessel containing a volatile liquid over a range of temperatures.
• Determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of the volatile liquid.
• Calculate the heat of vaporization of the liquid.

## Sensors and Equipment

This experiment features the following Vernier sensors and equipment.

### Option 2

You may also need an interface and software for data collection. What do I need for data collection?

See other experiments from the lab book.

 1 The Determination of a Chemical Formula 2 The Determination of the Percent Water in a Compound 3 The Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid 4 Using Freezing-Point Depression to Find Molecular Weight 5 The Molar Volume of a Gas 6 Standardizing a Solution of Sodium Hydroxide 7 Acid-Base Titration 8 An Oxidation-Reduction Titration: The Reaction of Fe2+ and Ce4+ 9 Determining the Mole Ratios in a Chemical Reaction 10 The Determination of an Equilibrium Constant 11 Investigating Indicators 12 The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide 13 Determining the Enthalpy of a Chemical Reaction 14A Separation and Qualitative Analysis of Cations 14B Separation and Qualitative Analysis of Anions 15A The Synthesis of Alum 15B The Analysis of Alum 16 Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate 17 Determining the Concentration of a Solution: Beer's Law 18 Liquid Chromatography 19 Buffers 20 Electrochemistry: Voltaic Cells 21 Electroplating 22 The Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin 23 Determining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide 24 Determining Ka by the Half-Titration of a Weak Acid 25 The Rate and Order of a Chemical Reaction 26 The Enthalpy of Neutralization of Phosphoric Acid 27 α, β, and γ 28 Radiation Shielding 29 The Base Hydrolysis of Ethyl Acetate 30 Exploring the Properties of Gases 31 Determining Avogadro's Number 32 Potentiometric Titration of Hydrogen Peroxide 33 Determining the Half-Life of an Isotope 34 Vapor Pressure and Heat of Vaporization 35 Rate Determination and Activation Energy

### Experiment 34 from Advanced Chemistry with Vernier Lab Book #### Included in the Lab Book

Vernier lab books include word-processing files of the student instructions, essential teacher information, suggested answers, sample data and graphs, and more.

Dev Reference: VST0035